This is one of the first strikes to affect an astronomical observatory. 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, Location of Atacama Large Millimeter Array, The first two ALMA antennas linked together as an, Three ALMA antennas linked together as an interferometer for the first time, ALMA prototype-antennas at the ALMA test facility, July 2008 NRAO ALMA newsletter article by Dr. Al Wootten, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan, Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, After a Tough Year, ALMA's Star Begins to Rise at Last, removing excessive or indiscriminate images, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, "Alma telescope peers into space from Chile's mountains", "ALMA Inauguration Heralds New Era of Discovery", "At the End of the Earth, Seeking Clues to the Universe", "Alma telescope: Ribbon cut on astronomical giant", "ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array", "Ground breaking ceremony for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)", "National Radio Astronomy Observatory - Legacy Content - ALMA (CV)", Chile's ALMA probes for origins of universe, "General Dynamics Receives $169 Million to Build 12-Meter Antennas for Advanced Radio Telescope",,, "Monster Moves, Season 5, Episode 6: Mountain Mission", "European ALMA antenna brings total on Chajnantor to 16", "Birth of Planets Revealed in Astonishing Detail in ALMA's 'Best Image Ever' - NRAO: Revealing the Hidden Universe", "RELEASE 14-038 - NASA's 3-D Study of Comets Reveals Chemical Factory at Work", "Event Horizon Telescope Captures First Image of Black Hole | Astronomy |", "Phosphine gas in the cloud decks of Venus", "Scientists find gas linked to life in atmosphere of Venus", "First Light for Band 5 at ALMA - New receivers improve ALMA's ability to search for water in the Universe", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, ALMA Observatory: ALMA Selects New Director, "New 2012 ALMA Video Compilation Released", "ALMA Compact Array Completed and Named After Japanese Astronomer", "Workers at Earth's largest radio telescope in Chile strike over pay, working conditions", "Workers strike at world's largest radio telescope", "ALMA resumes operations after end of workers' strike", "COVID-19 (coronavirus) Measures at ALMA", "ALMA Residencia Handed Over - New accommodation for staff and visitors at ALMA site in Chile", How the Huge ALMA Radio Telescope Works (Infographic), An optical system design for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network, Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility,, Articles with infoboxes completely from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array. Array configurations from approximately 150 m to 14 km, Faster and more flexible imaging instrument than the Very Large Array, Largest and most sensitive instrument in the world at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, Point source detection sensitivity 20 times better than the Very Large Array, Data reduction system will be CASA (Common Astronomy Software Applications) which is a new software package based on, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 02:01. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later). ALMA is an international partnership among Europe, the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Chile. As of 2014[update], most theories did not expect planetary formation in such a young (100,000-1,000,000-year-old) system, so the new data spurred renewed theories of protoplanetary development. During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. Costing more than a billion US dollars, it is the worlds's most expensive ground-based telescope. Phase closure with three antennas at Chajnantor. Costing $1.4 billion, ALMA is the world’s most expensive ground based telescope. [21] In October 2012, 43 of the 66 antennas had been set up. A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of "Atacama Large Millimeter Array", or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. A history of telescopes Mirrors of creation. Calçada (ESO), アルマ望遠鏡が観測するミリ波・サブミリ波は、地球の大気に含まれる水蒸気によって激しく吸収されてしまうため、空気が薄く乾燥した高地に建設する必要がありました。また、複数の電波望遠鏡を協働させる干渉計の技術を活用するためには、たくさんのアンテナを設置するための広い平坦な場所が必要です。野心的なアルマ望遠鏡を設置するにふさわしい「観測最適地」を求めて、天文学者は世界中の高地を調査しました。, その答えとして見出されたのが、南米チリ北部、アタカマ砂漠の標高5,000mの高原です。アタカマ砂漠は年間降水量が100mm以下で、世界でもっとも乾燥した場所のひとつといわれています。日本からアルマ望遠鏡施設までは、飛行機の乗り継ぎ時間を含めると40時間ほどかかりますが、アルマ望遠鏡設置に理想的な条件を備えた、地球上で究極の場所といえます。, アルマ望遠鏡のような巨大プロジェクトは、一国だけで開発・運用できるものではありません。世界中の国々が手を取りあい、人と技術と資金を出しあうことでアルマ望遠鏡は生まれました。, 一般的に学術研究は熾烈な国際競争の場でもありますが、同時に研究者が国々を自由に行き来したり、国際協力が当たり前のように行われたりもする平和な分野でもあります。1980年代から1990年代にかけて、日米欧のそれぞれが独自の巨大電波望遠鏡を計画していました。これらの状況は国際会議でお互いに共有されていたため、お互いの良いところを取り入れていくにつれて、計画はどれも似たものになっていきました。そして、「それぞれの計画を合体させ、1つの国や地域では実現できない理想の望遠鏡を作ってはどうか」という構想が日米欧の研究者たちのなかから生まれたのです。アルマ望遠鏡計画の誕生です。, 現在のアルマ望遠鏡の運用は、日本・台湾・韓国の東アジア、アメリカとカナダからなる北米、欧州南天天文台を構成する16か国と建設地のチリ共和国の協力で行われています。日本の国立天文台のスタッフ十数名も現地に赴任し、世界中から集まってきた研究者や技術者・事務職員と協力してアルマ望遠鏡の運用にあたっています。また日本・アメリカ・ドイツに設置されたアルマ地域支援センターでは、それぞれ東アジア・北米・欧州地域にいる天文学者がアルマ望遠鏡で研究を行うためのサポートを担当しています。, 国際協力で生まれたアルマ望遠鏡プロジェクトのなかで、日本は全体のおよそ4分の1の貢献をしています。パラボラアンテナは66台のうちの16台、電波をとらえる受信機は10種類のうち3種類を日本が開発しました。日本製の16台のアンテナで集められた信号を処理するためのスーパーコンピューターも、日本が開発したものです。アルマ望遠鏡には、日本の最先端技術が惜しみなく投入されているのです。, パラボラアンテナは、はるかかなたの天体からやってくる電波が最初に触れる人工物です。微弱な電波をもれなく集めるため、アンテナの表面はできるだけ滑らかにしておく必要があります。アルマ望遠鏡では、その誤差を人間の髪の毛の太さの約3分の1、25ミクロン以下という高い精度で実現しました。, パラボラアンテナには、観測対象の天体を高い精度で追尾できる性能が求められます。アタカマ砂漠の強い日射や昼夜の大きな温度差、強い風など、厳しい自然環境のもとでこれを実現するのは簡単なことではありませんでした。, 日本製のアンテナには、アンテナ自身の微妙なゆがみを自ら計測してリアルタイムで補正する最先端の技術をはじめ、さまざまな工夫が凝らされています。, アンテナで集められた電波をコンピューターで処理するための電気信号に変換するのが、受信機です。アルマ望遠鏡では、観測した電波を10の周波数帯(バンド)に分けて電気信号に変換するため、それぞれに最適な設計で受信機を開発しました。受信する波長が短くなるほど精度の要求も高くなります。, 日本は、超伝導技術や精密機械加工技術など、最先端技術の粋を集め、もっとも波長の短いバンド10受信機を含む3種類の受信機を開発し、全66台のアンテナに搭載される受信機を量産しました。, たくさんのアンテナからやってくる電気信号を処理するのが、「相関器」と呼ばれるスーパーコンピューターです。, 日本が開発した相関器は、日本製の16台のアンテナから届けられる膨大なデータを即座に処理する必要があります。そのデータ処理能力は、1秒間に256ギガバイト。DVD54枚(片面一層)のデータを毎秒処理することが可能です。, アルマ望遠鏡を構成する66台のアンテナのなかで、日本が開発した16台のアンテナ群と受信機、相関器からなるシステムを、「アタカマコンパクトアレイ(愛称:モリタアレイ)」と呼びます。たくさんのアンテナを連動させて、巨大な1つの望遠鏡とする「干渉計」方式の電波望遠鏡では、アンテナの間隔を広げれば広げるほど解像度が上がりますが、逆に視野は狭くなります。逆に、大きく広がった天体を広い視野で観測するためには、アンテナの間隔を小さくする必要があります。モリタアレイは、口径の小さなアンテナを狭い範囲にまとめることで、それを実現しました。, つまりアルマ望遠鏡を使う天文学者たちは、広い範囲に展開される米欧のアンテナ群と、モリタアレイの両方を組み合わせて観測することで、広がった天体のなかの細かい構造まではっきりと描き出すことができるのです。なおモリタアレイの名は、その設計に大きな貢献を残した、故・森田耕一郎 国立天文台教授にちなんでつけられたものです。アルマ望遠鏡が世界の天文学研究を今後もリードし続けるために、パワーアップのための将来開発計画も検討されています。日本の高い技術力をアルマ望遠鏡に投入することで、これからも天文学の発展に貢献していきます。, Credit:ALMA(ESO / NAOJ / NRAO)/ L. Calçada, アリゾナ大学のフェイジ・ワン氏らの国際研究チームは、観測史上最も遠くに位置するクエーサーを発見しました。このクエーサー…, イギリス・ダーラム大学/フランス原子力・代替エネルギー庁(CEA)のアナガラジア・プグリシ(Annagrazia Puglisi)氏らの研究…, チリでは、2019年に引き続き、2020年12月14にも皆既日食を観察できる機会が巡ってきました。この天文学の一大イベントに乗って…, © 2005 - 2017 National AstronomicalObservatory of Japan, © 2005 - 2017 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. ESO/NRAO/NAOJ joint site testing with Chile. But before ALMA could join the Event Horizon Telescope network, it first had to transform into a different kind of instrument known as a phased array. ALMA Telescope. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Fukui et al./Tokuda et al./NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope Astronomers know that stars are formed in collapsing clouds in space. [28], ALMA participated in the detection of phosphine, a biomarker, in the atmosphere of Venus. Video compilation showing various aspects of ALMA. Thirty-two 12-m antennas in the 12-m array. On March 13, 2013, the ALMA Telescope in northern Chile officially went online. [7] The array has much higher sensitivity and higher resolution than earlier submillimeter telescopes such as the single-dish James Clerk Maxwell Telescope or existing interferometer networks such as the Submillimeter Array or the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure facility. The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The blue region in left panel shows the ionized hydrogen gas observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. The work stoppage began after the observatory failed to reach an agreement with the workers' union. First move of an ALMA antenna to Chajnantor. Although ALMA did not observe the entire galaxy merger, the result is the best submillimeter-wavelength image ever made of the Antennae Galaxies, showing the clouds of dense cold gas from which new stars form, which cannot be seen using visible light. (in HD). Red and green show the distributions of molecular gas with different velocities mapped by 13 CO emissions. [42][43], In March 2020, ALMA was shut down due to the COVID-19 coronavirus crisis. This 16-minute video presents the history of ALMA from the origins of the project several decades ago to the recent first science results. Start of Early Science Cycle 0. The blue region in left panel shows the ionized hydrogen gas observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. At the end of 2009, a team of ALMA astronomers and engineers successfully linked three antennas at the 5,000-metre (16,000 ft) elevation observing site thus finishing the first stage of assembly and integration of the fledgling array. Share Link. The guests are shown with one of the giant ALMA transporters as well as other components. ALMA … Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. The ALMA regional centre (ARC) has been designed as an interface between user communities of the major contributors of the ALMA project and the JAO. [2] Costing about US$1.4 billion, it is the most expensive ground-based telescope in operation. That's a huge, light-gathering eyeball! The blue features are galaxies imaged by Hubble. A slideshow traces the potted history of the telescope, from Galileo to ALMA By the summer of 2011, sufficient telescopes were operational during the extensive program of testing prior to the Early Science phase for the first images to be captured. This was the number of antennas specified for ALMA to begin its first science observations, and was therefore an important milestone for the project. 01:32. [24][25], An image of the protoplanetary disk surrounding HL Tauri (a very young T Tauri star[26] in the constellation Taurus) was made public in 2014, showing a series of concentric bright rings separated by gaps, indicating protoplanet formation. [38][39][40][41] After 17 days an agreement was reached providing for reduced schedules and higher pay for work done at high altitude. Three prototype antennas have undergone evaluation at the Very Large Array since 2002. Once completed there will be 66 antennas trained at the sky, working in tandem with one another to observe the cosmos, the largest and most expensive ground-based telescope in history. The ALMA radio telescope array captures a ring of fire – the light from a remote, well-formed galaxy more than 12 billion light years away that was gravitationally magnified as it was bent around an intervening galaxy. Discover Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile: One of the world's most advanced radio observatories sprawls across the Atacama Desert. 8 Cool Facts About the ALMA Telescope by Clara Moskowitz, Assistant Managing Editor ESO Photo Ambassador Babak Tafreshi snapped this remarkable image of the antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), set against the splendour of the Milky Way. The blue part in right panel shows the emissions from dust particles obtained with ALMA. 66th and final antenna arrived and accepted. Go inside the U. S. insurrection with a National Geographic photographer. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance,[9] 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile. ALMA is inaugurated after nearly three decades of planning, engineering and construction. By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Global telescope array links successfully with GBT. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. [3][4] ALMA began scientific observations in the second half of 2011 and the first images were released to the press on 3 October 2011. Start of Early Science Cycle 1. Research led by Durham University and with observations made with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) telescope of the European Southern Observatory reveals that after the collision, one of the galaxies ejects 10,000 Suns-worth of gas every year. A talk on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), by Leonardo Testi. [37], In August 2013, workers at the telescope went on strike to demand better pay and working conditions. ALMA, currently the largest telescope array in the world, just took a look at the Hubble Space Telescope’s deepest-ever image, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. A Panchromatic View of Galaxy Build-up in the First 2 Gyrs of Cosmic History-----Venue: Online Date: December 15, 2020.